Progress in research of a wide range of materials, including the enormous range of recent nanomaterials, has contributing to the economic and social development of nations. However, caring for the environment is today a universal issue. Thereby, it becomes increasingly imperative to use non-polluting or easy recycling materials, in all applications, mainly in the areas of energy, electronics and transportation. In this sense, research laboratories, either academics or inside the enterprises, are facing enormous challenges because if on one hand the progress of mankind can not stop, on the other this progress must cease the constant aggression to the environment. This symposium is the second of a series in the SPMAt meetings, which intends to address issues on sustainable development based on the collective priorities of the societies, in particular those of South American countries. However, the experiences of countries from other continents can contribute much to the discussion of this theme. The main idea of this symposium is therefore to discuss experiences coming from academies and companies, and from the presentations to promote debates that lead to the elaboration of proposals to be sent to development agencies and also to collaborate with the establishment of public policies about new energy sources, new products applied to transportation, health and electronics in general, always maintaining the issue of sustainability and cleanliness of the environment.